The evolution of research on academic procrastination during Covid-19: A visual analysis using VOSviewer and Biblioshiny


  • Wahidah Fitriani Universitas Islam Negeri Mahmud Yunus Batusangkar
  • Rahayu Eka Putri Universitas Islam Negeri Mahmud Yunus Batusangkar
  • Diyana Kamarudin Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia
  • Adam Mudinillah Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Al-Hikmah Pariangan



Academic procrastination, Bibliometric analysis, Biblioshiny. VOSviewer


Several students have experienced academic procrastination, particularly in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. Previous research has been conducted to understand the relationship between academic procrastination and a range of variables, including self-regulated learning, academic stress, and achievement. However, a significant gap exists in terms of analyzing the broader patterns and trends in this field through bibliometric analysis. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a complete picture of academic procrastination and explore hot spots and research trends during Covid-19. The bibliometric VOSviewer and Biblioshiny methods were used to analyze academic procrastination literatures in the Scopus core collection database. The overall characteristics of academic procrastination during this period were summarized by analyzing numbers, published research, countries, institutions, and keywords. A total of 141 articles published in the Scopus database from 2020 to 2022 were analyzed. The result showed the most influential countries were China, Turkey, as well as Indonesia and the United States, which took a prominent lead with 29, 16, and 13 articles published, respectively. Universität Paderborn emerged as the most productive institution, having published 5 articles during covid-19. With the aid of VOSviewer and Biblioshiny tools, this research identified the hotpots of academic procrastination, which were mainly associated with the title analysis, namely self-efficacy, academic motivation, academic achievement, life satisfaction, university students, academic hardiness, psychological wellbeing, followed by self-regulation, anxiety, and internet addiction. Therefore, this research was very useful for scholars and practitioners to comprehensively understand the trend of research on academic procrastination during Covid-19.


Abdollahi, A., Farab, M.N., Panahipour, S., & Allen, K. A. (2020). Academic Hardiness as a Moderator between Evaluative Concerns Perfectionism and Academic Procrastination in Students. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 181(5), 365–374.

Adom, D., Essel, H. B., & Chukwuere, J. (2020). The state of academic stress in the higher institutions of Ghana: The way forward. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(2), 321–331.

Alavudeen, S. S., Easwaran, V., Mir, J. I., Shahrani, S. M., Aseeri, A. A., Khan, N. A., Almodeer, A. M., & Asiri, A. A. (2021). The influence of COVID-19 related psychological and demographic variables on the effectiveness of e-learning among health care students in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 29(7), 775–780.

Almalki, K., Alharbi, O., Al-Ahmadi, W., & Aljohani, M. (2020). Anti-procrastination online tool for graduate students based on the pomodoro technique. In Z. P., I. A., & I. A. (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): Vol. 12206 LNCS (pp. 133–144). Springer.

Argiropoulou, M.-I., & Vlachopanou, P. (2021). Studying Vs Internet Use 0–1: the Mediating Role of Academic Procrastination between Flow and Problematic Internet Use among Greek University Students. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, 6(1), 159–165.

Argiropoulou, M.-I., Vlachopanou, P., & Kazén, M. (2022). Psychometric properties of the short version of the volitional components inventory in a Greek and a German sample. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 19(3), 184–205.

Arruda, H., Silva, E. R., Lessa, M., Proença Jr., D., & Bartholo, R. (2022). VOSviewer and Bibliometrix. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 110(3), 392–395.

Ayaz, M., & Gök, B. (2022). The effect of e-portfolio application on reflective thinking and learning motivation of primary school teacher candidates. Current Psychology, 1–17.

Baranova, T., Almazova, N., Tabolina, A., Kunina, O., & Yudina, I. (2020). The Study on Psychological Constitutions of Comprehensive University Students with Different Levels of Academic Procrastination. In Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems (Vol. 131, pp. 760–769). Springer.

Barnych, M., Petrenko, S., Nechaienko, T., Kovsh, O., & Saminina, H. (2023). The Development of New Thinking as a Consequence of the Influence of Screen Culture. Studies in Media and Communication, 10(3), 55.

Barrot, J. S., Llenares, I. I., & del Rosario, L. S. (2021). Students’ online learning challenges during the pandemic and how they cope with them: The case of the Philippines. Education and Information Technologies, 26(6), 7321–7338.

Barutçu Yıldırım, F., & Demir, A. (2020). Self-Handicapping Among University Students: The Role of Procrastination, Test Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Self-Compassion. Psychological Reports, 123(3), 825–843.

Bison, I., Civilleri, A., & Fraccaroli, F. (2021). Delay in university studies: The role of irrational procrastination and study skills. Giornale Italiano Di Psicologia, 48(1), 273–284.

Brenlla, M. E., Da Lama, R. G. F., Marengo, I. R., & Cricq, E. S. (2022). Future Time Perspective, Procrastination and Academic Motivation in Argentinian College Students during the Pandemic. Psychological Thought, 15(1), 215–241.

Cahyaratri, M. T., Saktini, F., Asikin, H. G., & Sumekar, T. A. (2022). the Relationship of Academic Procrastination With Stress, Anxiety, and Depression During the Covid-19 Pandemic in Students of the Medical Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Undip. Diponegoro Medical Journal (Jurnal Kedokteran Diponegoro), 11(3), 149–153.

Chen, Z. (2021). Information Statistical Analysis on the Effect of Anxiety Level on College Procrastinators and Non-procrastinators on Academic Grades. Proceedings - 2021 2nd International Conference on Information Science and Education, ICISE-IE 2021, 574–577.

Cho, M., & Lee, Y.-S. (2022). The effects of medical students’ self-oriented perfectionism on academic procrastination: the mediating effect of fear of failure. Korean Journal of Medical Education, 34(2), 121–129.

Colvin, M. K., Forchelli, G. A., Reese, K. L., Capawana, M. R., Beery, C. S., Murphy, J., Doyle, A. E., O’Keefe, S. M., & Braaten, E. B. (2022). Neuropsychology consultation to identify learning disorders in children and adolescents: a proposal based on lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic. Child Neuropsychology, 28(5), 671–688.

Corrales-Reyes, I. E., García-Raga, M., Villegas-Maestre, J. D., Valdés-Gamboa, L., Vitón-Castillo, A. A., Tusell-Hormigó, D., & Mejia, C. R. (2022). Factors associated to academic procrastination in dental students from seven Cuban universities. Revista Cubana de Medicina Militar, 51(2).

Dami, Z. A., Tameon, S. M., & Saudale, J. (2020). The predictive role of academic hope in academic procrastination among students: A mixed methods study. Pedagogika, 137(1), 208–229.

Darras, K. E., Spouge, R. J., de Bruin, A. B. H., Sedlic, A., Hague, C., & Forster, B. B. (2020). Undergraduate Radiology Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of Teaching and Learning Strategies. Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, 72(2), 194–200.

de la Fuente, J., Sander, P., Garzón-Umerenkova, A., Vera-Martínez, M. M., Fadda, S., & Gaetha, M. L. (2021). Self-Regulation and Regulatory Teaching as Determinants of Academic Behavioral Confidence and Procrastination in Undergraduate Students. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Desai, M., Pandit, U., Nerurkar, A., Verma, C., & Gandhi, S. (2021). Test anxiety and procrastination in physiotherapy students. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 10(1).

Dhawan, S. (2020). Online Learning: A Panacea in the Time of COVID-19 Crisis. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 49(1), 5–22.

Ejaz, H., Zeeshan, H. M., Ahmad, F., Bukhari, S. N. A., Anwar, N., Alanazi, A., Sadiq, A., Junaid, K., Atif, M., Abosalif, K. O. A., Iqbal, A., Hamza, M. A., & Younas, S. (2022). Bibliometric Analysis of Publications on the Omicron Variant from 2020 to 2022 in the Scopus Database Using R and VOSviewer. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(19), 12407.

Elhai, J. D., Sapci, O., Yang, H., Amialchuk, A., Rozgonjuk, D., & Montag, C. (2021). Objectively-measured and self-reported smartphone use in relation to surface learning, procrastination, academic productivity, and psychopathology symptoms in college students. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 3(5), 912–921.

Freyhofer, S., Ziegler, N., de Jong, E. M., & Schippers, M. C. (2021). Depression and Anxiety in Times of COVID-19: How Coping Strategies and Loneliness Relate to Mental Health Outcomes and Academic Performance. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Gadosey, C. K., Schnettler, T., Scheunemann, A., Fries, S., & Grunschel, C. (2021). The intraindividual co-occurrence of anxiety and hope in procrastination episodes during exam preparations: An experience sampling study. Learning and Individual Differences, 88.

García-Ros, R., Pérez-González, F., Tomás, J. M., Sancho, P., Plouffe, N., Dionne, F., Côté, G., Qu, R., Ding, N., Li, H., Song, X., Cong, Z., Cai, R., Zhu, Y., Wen, D., Uma, E., Lee, C., Shapiai, S., Binti Mat Nor, A., … Fries, S. (2022). Correlates and Consequences of Behavioral Procrastination: The Effects of Academic Procrastination, Self-Consciousness, Self-Esteem and Self-Handicapping. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(1), 1–7.

Gómez-Romero, M. J., Tomás-Sábado, J., Montes-Hidalgo, J., Brando-Garrido, C., Cladellas, R., & Limonero, J. T. (2020). Academic procrastination and risk of suicidal behavior in university students: The role of emotional regulation. Ansiedad y Estres, 26(2–3), 112–119.

Gün, F., Turabik, T., & Atanur Baskan, G. (2020). The relationship between academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination tendency: A study on teacher candidates. Hacettepe Egitim Dergisi, 35(4), 815–826.

Guo, Y. M., Huang, Z. L., Guo, J., Guo, X. R., Li, H., Liu, M. Y., Ezzeddine, S., & Nkeli, M. J. (2021). A bibliometric analysis and visualization of blockchain. Future Generation Computer Systems, 116, 316–332.

Hong, J.-C., Lee, Y.-F., & Ye, J.-H. (2021). Procrastination predicts online self-regulated learning and online learning ineffectiveness during the coronavirus lockdown. Personality and Individual Differences, 174, 110673.

Jia, J., Wang, L.-L., Xu, J.-B., Lin, X.-H., Zhang, B., & Jiang, Q. (2021). Self-Handicapping in Chinese Medical Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Academic Anxiety, Procrastination and Hardiness. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Klassen, R. M., Ang, R. P., Chong, W. H., Krawchuk, L. L., Huan, V. S., Wong, I. Y. F., & Yeo, L. S. (2009). A cross-cultural study of adolescent procrastination. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(4), 799–811.

Klassen, R. M., Ang, R. P., Chong, W. H., Krawchuk, L. L., Huan, V. S., Wong, I. Y., & Yeo, L. S. (2010). Academic procrastination in two settings: Motivation correlates, behavioral patterns, and negative impact of procrastination in Canada and Singapore. Applied Psychology, 59(3), 361–379.

Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 915–931.

Kljajic, K., Schellenberg, B. J. I., & Gaudreau, P. (2022). Why Do Students Procrastinate More in Some Courses Than in Others and What Happens Next? Expanding the Multilevel Perspective on Procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Korniseva, A., Guseva, S., Dombrovskis, V., & Capulis, S. (2022). Predictors of Student Procrastination in Latvian Higher Education Institutions during Distance Learning. International Journal of Learning in Higher Education, 29(1), 171–183.

Limone, P., Sinatra, M., Ceglie, F., & Monacis, L. (2020). Examining procrastination among university students through the lens of the self-regulated learning model. Behavioral Sciences, 10(12).

Lin, Y. (2022). Relationship between Trait Anxiety and Academic Procrastination: The Mediating Role of Internet Addiction. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 139–143.

Litvinova, A., Kokurin, A., Ekimova, V., Koteneva, A., & Pozdnyakov, V. (2020). Procrastination as a threat to the psychological security of the educational environment. Behavioral Sciences, 10(1).

Liu, G., Cheng, G., Hu, J., Pan, Y., & Zhao, S. (2020). Academic Self-Efficacy and Postgraduate Procrastination: A Moderated Mediation Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

Ma, Y., Yang, X. M., Hong, L., & Tang, R. J. (2022). The Influence of Stress Perception on Academic Procrastination in Postgraduate Students: The Role of Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning and Self-Control. International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting, 2022.

Madjid, A., Sutoyo, D. A., & Shodiq, S. F. (2021). Academic procrastination among students: The influence of social support and resilience mediated by religious character. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 40(1), 56–69.

Magdová, M., Fuchsová, K., & Berinšterová, M. (2021). Procrastination of university students in the context of academic motivation and self-control. Ceskoslovenska Psychologie, 65(4), 389–402.

Melgaard, Jø., Monir, R., Lasrado, L. A., & Fagerstrøm, A. (2021). Academic Procrastination and Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic. In M. R., R. R., C.-C. M.M., D. D., & P. E. (Eds.), Procedia Computer Science (Vol. 196, pp. 117–124). Elsevier B.V.

Melgaard, Jørgen, Monir, R., Lasrado, L., & Fagerstrøm, A. (2022). Academic Procrastination and Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Procedia Computer Science, 196, 117–124.

Muarifah, A., Rofiah, N. H., Mujidin, M., Mohamad, Z. S., & Oktaviani, F. (2022). Students’ academic procrastination during the COVID-19 pandemic: How does adversity quotient mediate parental social support? Frontiers in Education, 7.

Opdenakker, M.-C. (2021). Need-Supportive and Need-Thwarting Teacher Behavior: Their Importance to Boys’ and Girls’ Academic Engagement and Procrastination Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Özer, B. U., & Saçkes, M. (2011). Effects of academic procrastination on college students’ life satisfaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 12, 512–519.

Peixoto, E. M., Pallini, A. C., Vallerand, R. J., Rahimi, S., & Silva, M. V. (2021). The role of passion for studies on academic procrastination and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social Psychology of Education, 24(3), 877–893.

Pelikan, E. R., Lüftenegger, M., Holzer, J., Korlat, S., Spiel, C., & Schober, B. (2021). Learning during COVID-19: the role of self-regulated learning, motivation, and procrastination for perceived competence. Zeitschrift Für Erziehungswissenschaft, 24(2), 393–418.

Porras, M. M., & Ortega, F. H. (2021). Procrastination, test anxiety and academic performance on university students. Interdisciplinaria, 38(2), 243–258.

Ramírez-Gil, E., Reyes-Castillo, G., Rojas-Solís, J. L., & Fragoso-Luzuriaga, R. (2022). Academic Stress, Procrastination, and Internet Uses Among College Students During thecovid-19 Pandemic. Revista Ciencias de La Salud, 20(3).

Randjelović, D., VujiÄić, M., & Nikolić, G. (2021). Relationships between personality traits, negative affectivity and procrastination in high school students. Vojnosanitetski Pregled, 78(9), 928–934.

Rizky Jumansyah, A. A. R. (2022). VOSviewer Application Analysis: Computational Physical Chemistry Case Study. Moroccan Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 10, Mor.-J. Chem. 10 N°1 (2022) 091-101 Pages.

Roshanisefat, S., Azizi, S. M., & Khatony, A. (2021). Investigating the Relationship of Test Anxiety and Time Management with Academic Procrastination in Students of Health Professions. Education Research International, 2021.

Schmidt, L. (2020). The Objectives of Stakeholder Involvement in Transdisciplinary Research. A Conceptual Framework for a Reflective and Reflexive Practise. Ecological Economics, 176(Query date: 2023-03-09 11:08:50).

Sharma, A., & Alvi, I. (2021). Evaluating pre and post COVID 19 learning: An empirical study of learners’ perception in higher education. Education and Information Technologies, 26(6), 7015–7032.

Soegoto, H., Soegoto, E. S., Luckyardi, S., & Rafdhi, A. A. (2021). A Bibliometric Analysis of Management Bioenergy Research Using Vosviewer Application. Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology, 7(1), 89–104.

Steel, P, & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic Procrastination: Psychological Antecedents Revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 36–46.

Steel, Piers. (2007). The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychol Bull 133: 65-94. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 65–94.

Sternberg, N., Luria, R., Chandhok, S., Vickers, B., Kross, E., & Sheppes, G. (2020). When facebook and finals collide - procrastinatory social media usage predicts enhanced anxiety . Computers in Human Behavior, 109.

Svartdal, F., Dahl, T. I., Gamst-Klaussen, T., Koppenborg, M., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2020). How Study Environments Foster Academic Procrastination: Overview and Recommendations. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

Svartdal, F., Klingsieck, K. B., Steel, P., & Gamst-Klaussen, T. (2020). Measuring implemental delay in procrastination: Separating onset and sustained goal striving. Personality and Individual Differences, 156.

Tao, X., Hanif, H., Ahmed, H. H., & Ebrahim, N. A. (2021). Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization of Academic Procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Tavukcu, T., Kalimullin, A. M., Litvinov, A. V, Shindryaeva, N. N., Abraukhova, V., & Abdikeev, N. M. (2020). Analysis of Articles on Education and Instructional Technologies (Scopus). International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (IJET), 15(23), 108.

Trassi, A. P., Leonard, S. J., Rodrigues, L. D., Rodas, J. A., & Santos, F. H. (2022). Mediating factors of statistics anxiety in university students: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1512(1), 76–97.

Uma, E., Lee, C., Shapiai, S., Binti Mat Nor, A., Soe, H., & Varghese, E. (2020). Academic procrastination and self-efficacy among a group of dental undergraduate students in Malaysia. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 9(1).

Unda-López, A., Osejo-Taco, G., Vinueza-Cabezas, A., Paz, C., & Hidalgo-Andrade, P. (2022). Procrastination during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review. Behavioral Sciences, 12(2).

Valenzuela, R., Codina, N., Castillo, I., & Pestana, J. V. (2020). Young University Students’ Academic Self-Regulation Profiles and Their Associated Procrastination: Autonomous Functioning Requires Self-Regulated Operations. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2014). Visualizing Bibliometric Networks BT - Measuring Scholarly Impact: Methods and Practice (Y. Ding, R. Rousseau, & D. Wolfram (eds.); pp. 285–320). Springer International Publishing.

Vivar-Bravo, J., La Madrid Rojas, F. I., Fuster-Guillén, D., Ãlvarez Silva, V. A., & Ocaña-Fernández, Y. (2021). Academic Procrastination and Anxiety in University Students of Initial Education of Apurimac. Health Education and Health Promotion, 9(5), 455–459.

Wang, C.-H., Salisbury-Glennon, J. D., Dai, Y., Lee, S., & Dong, J. (2022). Empowering College Students to Decrease Digital Distraction Through the Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies. Contemporary Educational Technology, 14(4).

Xu, H. M., Qu, J.-H., Ma, X., & Ling, Y.-T. (2021). Prediction and visualization of academic procrastination in online learning. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 133–139.

Xue, X., Wang, Y., Li, H., Gao, J., & Si, J. (2021). The association between mathematical attitudes, academic procrastination and mathematical achievement among primary school students: the moderating effect of mathematical metacognition. Current Psychology.

Yeoh, H. C., Hong, S. P. L., & Prihadi, K. D. (2022). Efficacy, expectancy, or the sense of mattering? Academic procrastination in online study. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 11(3), 1311–1317.

Zarrin, A.S., Gracia, E., & Paixão, M. P. (2020). Prediction of academic procrastination by fear of failure and self-regulation. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 20(3), 34–43.

Zhang, C., & Zhang, W. (2022). The Impact of Academic Procrastination on Second Language Writing: The Mediating Role of L2 Writing Anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 13.