The Implementation of Non-Sequential Strategy to Face TOEFL ITP Problems

Ahmad Tauchid

Abstract


TOEFL was seen as a prerequisite for non-native English students to study abroad, to get a suitable employment, and to get a university diploma. Students also found it challenging to complete the TOEFL reading exam. This was an experimental research based on applying a non-sequential strategy. This study aimed at investigating whether the use of non-sequential strategy was effective to complete the reading comprehension session in TOEFL ITP or not. 100 English university students engaged entirely in the study as participants. They were studying at Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Sunan Giri (UNUGIRI) located in Bojonegoro, Eastern Java, Indonesia. The researcher provided the students a pre-test and post-test in order to collect the data. The students were permitted to perform the exam on their own during the pre-test. In this pre-test the researcher provided no special instructions. In the post-test, the participants got a preferential treatment. The students were advised to follow a non-sequential strategy for the exam. The data were produced through the students’ compilation of TOEFL scores. The data were anlyzed by comparing the students’ scores in pre-test and post-test. The results showed that a non-sequential strategy to complete the reading comprehension session of the TOEFL test is very effective to be implemented. This result is addressed further in this article.


References


Abboud, Z. A. R., & Hussein, N. J. (2011). The difficulties faced by advanced Iraqi foreign learners in passing ITP TOEFL test. Journal of Basrah Researches (Humanities Series), 36(4), 110-138.

Alderson, J.C. (2000). Success in English Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.

Alghail, A.A.A. & Mahfoodh, O.H.A. (2016). Academic reading difficulties encountered by international graduate students in a Malaysian university. Issues in Educational Research, 26(3), 369-386.

Ali, H. (2012). The use of silent reading in improving students’ reading comprehension and their achievement in TOEFL score at a private English course. International Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 1(1), 47-52.

Aliponga, J. (2013). Reading journal: its benefits for extensive reading. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(12), 73-80.

Antoni, R. (2014). An analysis on 6th semester students’ TOEFL experience at English department of teachers training and education faculty of Pasir Pengaraian

Aprianoto, & Haerazi (2019). Development and assessment of an interculture-based instrument model in the teaching of speaking skills. Universal Journal of Educational Research 7(12) pp. 2796-2805.DOI:https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.071230.

Ary, D., Jacobs, LC., Sorensen, C., & Razavieh, A. (2006). Introduction to Research in Education. (7th ed.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.

Babayiğit, S. (2014). The role of oral language skills in reading and listening comprehension of text: A comparison of monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) speakers of English language. Journal of Research in Reading, 37(S1), S22–S47.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2012.01538.x

Bonifacci, P., & Tobia, V. (2017). The simple view of reading in bilingual language-minority children acquiring a highly transparent second language. Scientific Studies of Reading, 21(2), 109–119.https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2016. 1261869

Brown, H. D. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices.

Cain, K. (2015). Literacy development: The interdependent roles of oral language and reading comprehension. In R. H. Bahr & E. R. Silliman (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Communication Disorders (1st ed., pp. 556–584). Routledge.

Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second and Foreign Language (Third Edition). Boston: Heinle and Heinle Thomson Learning Inc.

Chawwang, N. (2008). An Investigation of English Reading Problems of Thai 12th Grade Students in Nakhonratchasima Educational Region 1, 2, 3, and 7 (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation) Srinakharinwirot University Bangkok.

Davis, F. (1995). Introducing Reading. London: Penguin Books

Difficulties. New York: The Guildford Press.

Educational Testing Service (ETS). (2010). Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL Internet-based and Paper-based Tests. Retrieved November 29, 2015 from www.ets.org/toefl.

Fitriani, S. S. (2015). Improving reading comprehension of Acehnese EFL students. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation.

Fjeldstad, M. C. (1994). The Thoughtful Reader. A whole Language Approach to College Reading. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Florit, E., & Cain, K. (2011). The simple view of reading: Is it valid for different types of alphabetic orthographies? Educational Psychology Review, 23(4), 553–576.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-011-9175-6

Garner, R. (1998). Metacognition and Reading Comprehension. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Haerazi, H., May Vikasari, R., & Prayati, Z. (2019). The use of scientific-based approach in ELT class to improve students’ achievement and classroom interaction. Register Journal, 12(2),157-180. https://doi.org/10.18326/rgt.v12i2.157-180

Haerazi, H., Prayati, Z., & Vikasari, R. M. (2019). Practicing contextual teaching and learning (CTL) approach to improve students’ reading comprehension in relation to motivation. English Review: Journal of English Education, 8(1), 139-146. https://doi.org/10.25134/erjee.v8i1.2011

Harrison, C. (2004). Understanding Reading Developement. London: SAGE Publication

Healy, C. (2002). Reading: What the Experts say. Parent Educational Advocacy Training Center. Retrieved September 29, 2016 from http:www.peatc.org

John, W.B., & James, V.K. (2006). Research in Education, Tenth Edition. Chicago: Pearson Education Inc.

Kim, Y.-S. G. (2015). Developmental, component-based model of reading fluency: An investigation of word-reading fluency, text-reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 50, 459–481. Doi:10.1002/ rrq.107

Kim, Y.-S. G. (2020a). Hierarchical and dynamic relations of language and cognitive Skills to reading comprehension: Testing the direct and indirect effects model of reading (DIER). Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4), 667–684. doi:10.1037/edu0000407

Kim, Y.-S. G. (2020b). Toward integrative reading science: The direct and indirect effects model of reading (DIER). Journal of Learning Disabilities, 53, 469–491.doi:10.1177/0022219420908239

Kirkland, D., & Hull, G. A. (2011). Literacy out of school. A review of research on programs and practices. In M. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol IV (pp. 711–725). Taylor and Francis.

Klinger, J. K.., Vaughn, S., Boardman, A. (2007). Teaching Reading Comprehension to Students with Learning

Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P. J., & Meisinger, E. B. (2010). Aligning theory and assessment of reading fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230–251. doi:10.1598/ RRQ.45.2.4

Kuperman, V., & Van Dyke, J. A. (2013). Reassessing word frequency as a determinant of word recognition for skilled and unskilled readers. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39(3), 802–823. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030859

Lail, H. (2019). Answering reading texts on English tryout test based on the 12th grade students' strategies at SMA Negeri 1 Kuripan Lombok Barat. JOLLT Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 7(1),3-5. doi:https://doi.org/10.33394/jollt.v7i1.1434

Lems, K., Miller, L. D., & Soro, T. M. (2010). Teaching Reading to English Language Learners: Insights from Linguistics. New York: The Guilford Press.

Lervåg, A., & Aukrust, V. G. (2010). Vocabulary knowledge is a critical determinant of the difference in reading comprehension growth between first and second language learners. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(5), 612–620. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02185.x

Li, Y., & Wang, C. (2010). An empirical study of reading self-efficacy and the use of reading strategies in the Chinese EFL context. The Asian EFL Journal, 12(2), 144-162.

Mahmud, M. (2014). The EFL students’ problems in answering the test of English as a foreign language (TOEFL): A study in Indonesian context. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(12), 2581-2587.

Mancilla-Martinez, J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2010). Predictors of reading comprehension for struggling readers: The case of Spanish-speaking language minority learners. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 701–711. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/a0019135

Marzuki, A. G. (2019). Developing students’ reading skills on Islamic texts through SQ3R method in an EFL class. REGISTER JOURNAL, 12(1), pp.49-61, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18326/rgt.v12i1.49-61

Mathematics, Statistics and Its Application (ICMSA), October 4-6, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Morales, S. (2011). Variables socioculturales y cognitivas en el desarrollo de la comprensión de lectura en Lima, Perú. Revista Peruana de Investigación Educativa, 3, 96–129. http://revistas.siep.org.pe/RPIE/article/view/18

Morales, S., Verhoeven, L., & van Leeuwe, J. (2010). Sociocultural variation in reading comprehension development among fifth graders in Peru. Reading and Writing, 24(8), 951–969.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-010-9242-2

Nezami, S. (2012). A critical study of comprehension strategies and general problems in reading skill faced by Arab EFL learners with special reference to Najran University in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 2(3), 306-316.

Ning, B., Van Damme, J., Liu, H., Vanlaar, G., & Gielen, S. (2013). Students’ individual perceptions of school climate predict reading achievement in Shanghai. International Journal of School & Educational Psychology, 1(3), 188–198. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683603.2013.821638

Philips, D. (2003). Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test. London: Longman.

Ripoll Salceda, J. C., Aguado Alonso, G., & Castilla-Earls, A. P. (2014). The simple view of reading in elementary school: A systematic review. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología, 34(1), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rlfa. 2013.04.006

Rogers, B. (2007). Peterson's master TOEFL reading skills. USA: Nelnet Company.

Sabatini, J., Wang, Z., & O’Reilly, T. (2018). Relating reading comprehension to oral reading performance in the NAEP fourth-grade special study of oral reading. Reading Research Quarterly. doi:10.1002/rrq.226

Samad, I. A, Hizir, Kasim,U., Fitriani, S. S., & Mustafa, F. (2016). Resep Unggulan Unsyiah Meningkatkan Nilai TOEFL. Proceeding of Seminar Nasional Pengembangan Pendidikan Tinggi, 25 October 2016. Padang: Andalas University Press.

Samad, I. A. (2016). Improving Students’ Competence in the Thesis Defence.

Snow, C. (2002). Reading for Understanding (Towards an R&D Programs in Reading Comprehension). Santa Monica: RAND

Sulistyo, G. H. (2011). Reading for Meaning: theories, teaching strategies and assessment. Malang: Pustaka Kaiswaran.

Syafi, M. L. (2018). Using online short stories to improve the reading comprehension ability, REGISTER JOURNAL, 11(2), 2018, pp.121-138, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18326/rgt.v11i2.168-191

Tobia, V., & Bonifacci, P. (2015). The simple view of reading in a transparent orthography: The stronger role of oral comprehension. Reading and Writing, 28(7), 939–957. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-015-9556-1

University. Journal Ilmiah Edu Research, 3(1), 9-16.

Verhoeven, L. (2011). Second language reading acquisition. In M. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research: Vol IV (pp. 661–687). Taylor and Francis.

Verhoeven, L., & van Leeuwe, J. (2012). The simple view of second language reading throughout the primary grades. Reading and Writing, 25(8), 1805–1818. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s11145-011-9346-3

Warfield, W., Laribee, R., & Geyer, R. W. (2013). Examining results and establishing benchmark data from the TOEFL ITP test. American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal,5(3), 191-198.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26486/jele.v7i1.1508

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright of  JELE (Journal of English Language and Education), ISSN 2541-6421 (online)ISSN 2460-7142 (print) Gedung LPPM Universitas Mercu Buana Yogyakarta

Kampus I  : Jl. Wates Km. 10 Yogyakarta 55753. Telp: 0274-6498212, 6498211, Fax. 0274-6498213 

Email: jele@mercubuana-yogya.ac.id

 

tumblr counter
Jele View My Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.